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Bibliography according to APA style, 7th edition

Reproduced and adapted with the permission of Polytechnique Montréal Library.

Article (journal, magazine, newspaper)

Journal article with DOI (Digital Object Identifier)

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal, Volume(Issue), Pages. DOI

  • Young, N. E., Tarjan, R.E., & Orlin, J. B. (1991). Faster parametric shortest path and minimum balance algorithms. Networks, 21(2), 205–221. 10.1002/net.3230210206
  • Terracciano, A., Abdel-Khalek, A. M., Adam, N., Adamovova, L., Ahn, C., Ahn, H., & McCrae, R. R. (2005). National character does not reflect mean personality trait levels in 49 cultures. Science, 310(1), 96–100. doi:10.1126/science.1117199

Journal article without DOI

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Title of journal, Volume(Issue), Pages.

  • Baron, R. A., & Tang, J. (2011). The role of entrepreneurs in firm level innovation: Joint effects of positive affect, creativity, and environmental dynamism. Journal of Business Venturing, 26(1), 49-60.

Newspaper article

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year, month). Title of article. Title of journal, Volume(Issue), pages.

  • Anderson, L., Cabral, R. S., Hacker, J. S., Le Blanc, M.-F., Gelernter, J., & Caetano, A. (2004, November 28). Mintzberg's new programme campus briefing. Financial Times, 12-13.

Audiovisual Media

Film or video

Director, A. A. ( Director). (Year). Title [Film]. Publisher.

  • Forman, M. (Director). (1975). One flew over the cuckoo's nest [Film]. United Artists.

Webinar, recorded
Cite unrecorded webinars as personal communications.

Instructor, A. A. (Year). Title [Webinar]. Association. URL

  • Goldberg, J. F. (1978). Evaluating adverse drug effects [Webinare]. American Psychiatric Association. https://education.psychiatric. org/Users/ProductDetails.aspx?ActivityID=6172

Streaming video (ex.: YouTube)

Uploader, A. A. (Date). Title [Description]. Production Company OR Label OR University Name. URL

  • Grimson, E., & Guttag, J. (2008). MIT 6.00: Introduction to computer science and programming: Branching, conditionals, and iteration - Fall 2008 [Video file]. MIT OpenCourseWare.

Book, digital book, collective work

Book, print version

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of book (Edition ed.). Publisher.

  • Ferris, M. C. , Mangasarian, O. L., & Wright, S. J. (2008). Linear programming with MATLAB (2nd ed.). Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

Electronic book with DOI

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of book (Edition ed.). DOI

  • Meyer-Stabley, P. (2014). Agile! The good, the hype and the ugly (1st ed.). 10.1007/978-3-319-05155-0

Chapter in a collective work

Cite a book chapter only if it is included in an edited book where each chapter was written by different authors.​

  • Usually, the document is a collection of texts by various authors and the editor could also be one of the authors. An editor is a person who prepares the contents of a document to be published.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of chapter. In A. A. Editor, B. B. Editor, & C. C. Editor (Eds.), Title of book (Edition ed., pp. Pages). Publisher. DOI

  • Harel-Giasson, F. (1990). Femmes gestionnaires : l'actrice et l'organisation. In J.-F. Chanlat (Ed.), L'individu dans l'organisation : Les dimensions oubliées (pp. 407-416). Presses de l'Université Laval.

Conference session and presentation

  • Include paper presentation, poster sessions, keynote addresses, ans symposium contributions
  • Include a label in square brackets after the title to describe the presentation.

Conference session

Presenter, A. A., Presenter, B. B., & Presenter, C. C. (Year, date). Title of paper [Type of contribution]. Conference Name, Location. URL

  • Paquet, R. (2019, july 6-8). Étude comparative des pratiques de gestion des ressources humaines dans les milieux syndiqués et non syndiqués, [Conference session]. Canadian Industrial Relations Association (CIRA) congress, Toronto, ON, Canada. 

Symposium contribution

Presenter, A. A., & Presenter, B. B. (Year, date). Title of contribution. In Chairperson (chair), Title of symposium [Symposium]. Conference Name, Location. URL

  • De Boer, D. & LaFavor, T. (2018, April 26-29). The art and significance of successfully identifying resilient individuals: Conceptualization, measurement, and enhancement [Symposium]. Western psychological Association 98th Annual Convention, Portland, OR, United States . 

Dissertation and Thesis


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation [Doctoral dissertation, Name of institution Awarding the Degree]. Database Name. (OR Archive Name. URL)

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis  [Master's thesis, Name of institution Awarding the Degree]. Database Name. (OR Archive Name. URL)

  • Hollander, M. M. (2012). Resistance to authority: Methodological innovations and new lessons from the Milgram experiment (Publication No. 10289373) [Doctoral dissertation, University of Wisconsin-Madison]. ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global.


Author, A. A. (Year). Title of dissertation [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. Name of institution Awarding the Degree.

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of thesis [Unpublished master's thesis]. Name of institution Awarding the Degree.

  • Harris, L. (2014). Instructional leadership perceptions and practices of elementary school leaders [Unpublished doctoral dissertation]. University of Virginia.


Only published interviews are included in a bibliography.

Use the format of the document in which the interview was originally published (scientific article, magazine, journal, radio, etc.) to create your reference. 

For personal interviews and interviews with research participants, see the Citing Your Sources guide. Note that no bibliographic reference is included in the bibliography for these 2 types of interviews.

Personal communication (lecture notes, PowerPoint presentations, AI Chatbox)

No category for personal communications in EndNote

Do not include personal communications in your list of bibliographic references. 

You have to name the author of the personal communication in your text. For more information, visit the Citing your sources guide. 


(ChatGPT, personal communication: prompt to (your question, your topics), Date)

  • (ChatGPT, personal communication: prompt to how to apply the components of Porter's model to the lithium battery industry, March 29, 2023).

Report and Gray literature


  • Use parentheses to add report number.
  • Use square brackets after the title to describe gray literature.

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of report (Report No. report number). Publisher. URL

  • Science and Economic Development Canada. (2019). Canada small business financing program : evaluation report (Report No. Iu4-273/2020E-PDF).

Gray literature

Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Year). Title of gray literature [Description]. Publisher. URL

  • Harwell, M. (2018). Don't expect too much: The limited usefulness of common SES measures and a prescription for change [Policy brief]. National Education Policy Center.

Web page and website

Web page (and not website)
Use this category only when the work does not better fit within another category (article, book, reports, etc.)

  • If you cite multiple webpages from a website, create a reference for each.
  • The retrieval date is not required for web pages, except for pages that may change over time, such as wikis.

Organization. (Date). Title of work. URL

  • Ministère du Développement durable, Environnement et Lutte contre les changements climatiques. (n.d.). Les gaz à effet de serre.

Author. (Date). Title of work. Organization. URL

  • Martin Lillie, C. M. (2016, December 30). Be kind to yourself: How self-compassion can improve your resiliency. Mayo Clinic.


If you cite an entire website mention it only in the text and do not create an entry in the reference list.

In text citation : HEC Montréal ( is a management and business school.

Social Media

Cite only original content from social media. That is, if you used social media to discover content and you want to cite it, cite it directly. It is not necessary to mention that you found it through a link on social media.

Author, A. A. [@username] (Date). Title of content [description]. Site Name. Retrieved date, from URL


  • White, B. [@BettyMWhite]. (2018, June 21). I treasure every minute we spent together #koko [Image attached] [Tweet]. Twitter.

Facebook Post

  • National Institute of Mental Health. (2018, November 28). Suicide affects all ages, genders, races, and ethnicities. Check out these 5 Action Steps for Helping Someone in Emotional Pain [Infographic]. Facebook.

Facebook Page

  • Smithsonian's national Zoo and Conservation Biology Institute. (n.d.) Home [Facebook page]. Facebook. Retrieved July 22, 2019, from zoo