The quotation must be:
Ex. : The exercise of narrative provides a better cohesion of the members and a detachment of the theoretical concepts so they can « developing and communicating their story, so that they could empower themselves, sustain a sense of shared understanding and shared experience, and [...] help others to understand and join their quest. » (Morgan, 1993, p. 190).
Ex. : Mary Parker Follett was interested in management in the mid-1920s and has had success with her book "Creative experience". The book begins as follow:
Modify the Quotation
Any changes to a quotation must be indicated by brackets [ ]. The brackets allow to cut out a part of a quotation or to add a clarification.
To indicate that an error (spelling, vocabulary, etc.) is part of the quoted text, we use the abbreviation in parentheses: (sic).
A paraphrase "restates another's idea (or your own previously published idea) in your own words" (APA, 2020). Reformulations, paraphrases or syntheses do not appear in quotation marks but are always accompanied by the reference to the source: author and date (year). Reference to the page is added when there is a reformulation referring to precise pages.
Ex. : When Mintzberg began his doctorate at the Massachusetts Instute of Technology (MIT), he is surprised that the academic community does not understand management. His thesis then switches from business strategy to what is management (Mouslie, 2010).
In a parenthetical citation, the last name of the two authors are seperated by an ampersand (&).
In a narrative citation, the two authors are separated by "and" and followed by the date in parenthesis.
3 to 5 Authors
The first time the citation appears in the text, every author's last name must be mentioned. If the citation is repeated in the text, only mention the first author followed by the Latin abbreviation - et al., which means « and others ».
When you can't identify the author, the title will be used instead. If it is too long, use only the first words of the title.
The full title can be found in the bibliography.
If the author of the work is specifically designated as "Anonymous", it will take the place of the author name in the in-text citatation.
When the author of the document is a company, an association, etc., the responsible body will be used as the author.
There are three types of interviews:
When a cited document may not be recovered by the reader, it is considered a personal communication.
Only cite in the text, while indicating the communicator's initials and surname, title and date, using the following formats :
(author's initials, surname, type of communication, date)
Important: Since the information is not available on any support, it should not be included in the bibliography.
It is possible to use an indirect source when the original document is not available :
This citation, however, is less valuable than the original quote. Be sure it is relevant, reliable, recognized in the field, and that the statement leaves no room to interpretation.
We indicate the reference to the original citation, followed by "as cited in" and then the reference to the consulted source.
Ex. (Goethe, 1769, as cited in Lapierre & Tremblay, 2009, p. 107)
If the year of the primary source is unknown, leave it out from the in-text citation.
Ex. Goethe (as cited in Lapierre & Tremblay, 2009, p. 107)
Important: Only the consulted sources will appear in the bibliography or list of references.
When the publication date of a document is unknown, write "n.d." for no date.
Ex. (Bélanger, n.d.)
When we rely on several sources sharing the same idea, they are all listed, separated by a semicolon.
Ex. (Bégin, 2004; Archambault & Pouliot, 2008).
The different sources are generally cited in chronological or in alphabetical order.