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Citing your sources

Based on APA6th

Quotation

The quotation must be:​

  • reproduced in its entirety, with punctuation, mistakes, etc.
  • in italics when it is in an other language than the text.

Short Quotation

  • Three lines or less.
  • It must be enclosed in quotation marks and inserted into the paragraph.

Ex. : The exercise of narrative provides a better cohesion of the members and a detachment of the theoretical concepts so they can «  developing and communicating their story, so that they could empower themselves, sustain a sense of shared understanding and shared experience, and [...] help others to understand and join their quest. » (Morgan, 1993, p. 190).

Long Quotation

  • More than three lines.
  • It must be separated from the paragraph and presented single-spaced, without quotation marks, with an indentation from the left margin (withdrawal towards the right) about three centimeters. The long quotation often appears in a smaller font than one point (1 pt).

Ex. : Mary Parker Follett was interested in management in the mid-1920s and has had success with her book "Creative experience". The book begins as follow:

The social sciences are not gathering all the fruits of certain recent developments of thought; they are not all of them even using the most modern method of study, which is wholly to abandon the region of abstract speculation and to study the behavior of men. ny political scientists talk about conferring power without analyzing power; many economists talk about representation in industry without analyzing representation; there are sociologists who talk about individual and social interests without sufficiently analyzing the difference, if there is one, between individual and social interests. (Follett, 1924, p. 1)

Modify the Quotation

Any changes to a quotation must be indicated by brackets [ ]. The brackets allow to cut out a part of a quotation or to add a clarification.

  • "We should [...] now look at men in their daily occupations at factory or store [...] and see what we can learn." (Follett, 1924, online)

To indicate that an error (spelling, vocabulary, etc.) is part of the quoted text, we use the abbreviation in parentheses: (sic).

  • " (sic)." (author, year, p.)

Paraphrase

A paraphrase "restates another's idea (or your own previously published idea) in your own words" (APA, 2020). Reformulations, paraphrases or syntheses do not appear in quotation marks but are always accompanied by the reference to the source: author and date (year). Reference to the page is added when there is a reformulation referring to precise pages.

Ex. : When Mintzberg began his doctorate at the Massachusetts Instute of Technology (MIT), he is surprised that the academic community does not understand management. His thesis then switches from business strategy to what is management (Mouslie, 2010).

Several Authors

2 Authors

In a parenthetical citation, the last name of the two authors are seperated by an ampersand (&).

Ex. (Lapierre & Tremblay, 2006)

In a narrative citation, the two authors are separated by "and" and followed by the date in parenthesis. 

Ex. Lapierre and Tremblay (2006)

3 to 5 Authors

The first time the citation appears in the text, every author's last name must be mentioned. If the citation is repeated in the text, only mention the first author followed by the Latin abbreviation - et al., which means « and others ».

Ex. (Lapierre, Morin, Savard & Tremblay, 2001); Ex. (Lapierre et al., 2001); Ex. Lapierre et al. (2001)

6 Authors or More

The citation includes only the first author followed by the latin abbreviation - et al.

Ex. (Lapierre et al., 2001); Ex. Lapierre et al. (2001)

Unknown Author

When you can't identify the author, the title will be used instead. If it is too long, use only the first words of the title.

Ex. (Management focus, 1995)

The full title can be found in the bibliography.

Ex. « Management focus : Career opportunities »  (1995). The Economist, vol. 336, no 7922, p. 59.

If the author of the work is specifically designated as "Anonymous", it will take the place of the author name in the in-text citatation. 

Ex. (Anonymous, 1995)

Author is a Company or an Organization

When the author of the document is a company, an association, etc., the responsible body will be used as the author.

(Bombardier, 2014)

(Fonds monétaire international [FMI], 2005, p. 257)

Fonds monétaire international (FMI, 2005, p. 257)

If the company or association has an official abbreviation, it can be used in addition to its full name. However, only the full name will be used in the bibliography.

When the abbreviation is used with the full name in the citation, you can decide to omit the full name in the subsequent appearances of the citation.

Interviews

There are three types of interviews:

  1. Published interviews
    • (author, date) in the text
    • Bibliographic reference based on original document (journal, magazine, radio, etc.).
    • Please note: the author is usually not the person being interviewed
  2. Entrevue effectuée auprès des participants à une recherche
    • no citation
    • no bibliographic reference
    • name the participant in the text
      • ex. Our participant Françoise told her experience [...].
      • ex. Our first participant told her experience [...].
  3. Personal interview
    • treated as a personal communication

Personal Communications

When a cited document may not be recovered by the reader, it is considered a personal communication. 

  • email
  • text message
  • online chat
  • personal interviews
  • telephone conversation
  • live speech
  • unrecorded classroom lecture
  • memo
  • letter
  • etc.

Only cite in the text, while indicating the communicator's initials and surname, title and date, using the following formats :

(author's initials, surname, type of communication, date)

  • (C. Marchand, personal communication, August 8th, 2019)
  • (S. Paquette, e-mail communication, March 5th 2021)
  • (T. Nguyen, oral presentation, February 24th, 2020)

 

Important: Since the information is not available on any support, it should not be included in the bibliography

Indirect or Secondary Source

It is possible to use an indirect source when the original document is not available :

  • the original document is a classic, a reference in a foreign language;
  • the original document is not published anymore or hard to find.

This citation, however, is less valuable than the original quote. Be sure it is relevant, reliable, recognized in the field, and that the statement leaves no room to interpretation.

We indicate the reference to the original citation, followed by "as cited in" and then the reference to the consulted source.

Ex. (Goethe, 1769, as cited in Lapierre & Tremblay, 2009, p. 107)

If the year of the primary source is unknown, leave it out from the in-text citation.

Ex. Goethe (as cited in Lapierre & Tremblay, 2009, p. 107) 

Important: Only the consulted sources will appear in the bibliography or list of references.

Unknown Publication Date

When the publication date of a document is unknown, write "n.d." for no date.

Ex. (Bélanger, n.d.)

Several Sources

When we rely on several sources sharing the same idea, they are all listed, separated by a semicolon.

Ex. (Bégin, 2004; Archambault & Pouliot, 2008).

The different sources are generally cited in chronological or in alphabetical order.

All the examples below are taken from the book: American Psychological Association. (2020). Publication manual of the American Psychological Association (7 ed.). https://doi.org/10.1037/0000165-000