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Reference Management Tool

Import from a database

Refer to the Importing references from databases (procedures) page of this guide to know which databases are compatible with EndNote and how to export references to EndNote.


  • For each reference added in EndNote, verify the type of document and the accuracy of the information.
  • Make corrections as needed.

Importing is direct or indirect, depending on the database and the browser used.

Importing directly

Bibliographic references are transferred directly into EndNote.

  • Search the database.
  • Select the references.
  • Export the references (check the import procedures).

Importing indirectly

Bibliographic references are transferred to a file (usually with the .RIS extension) that is opened in EndNote.

  • Search the database.
  • Select the references.
  • Save the references.
  • In EndNote, Menu File > Import
  • Click on Choose File.
  • Manage duplicates in Discard Duplicates.
  • Choose Unicode (UTF-8) from the Text Translation drop-down menu if the file includes references in French with accented characters.
  • Click on Import.

Adding PDF documents


Importing PDF documents into EndNote allows you to create a record and attach the PDF. If the PDF document contains a DOI, EndNote is able to fill in some fields.

  1. Menu File > Import > Folder... (select File for a single file)
  2. Import Folder : select the folder containing the articles in PDF format
  3. Import Options : select PDF from the drop-down menu
  4. Duplicates : select Import All from the drop-down menu
NOTE : if EndNote cannot read the PDF document, a record will still be created, but the fields will be empty. You will have to fill them manually.

Check that the information is entered correctly in any case.

Attach the PDF

If the reference already exists in EndNote, use the "Attachment file" function to attach the PDF to the record. You must first download the PDF to your computer.

  1. Select the PDF and drag it to the reference in EndNote


  1. Select the reference in EndNote
  2. Menu References > File Attachments > Attach File...
  3. Browse your computer to select the PDF file
  4. Click on Open

Adding or modifying a reference manually

The required elements vary depending on the type of document; see the HEC Montreal bibliographic style page for guidance.

  1. Menu References > New Reference.
  2. Select the type of reference from the drop-down menu Reference Type.
  3. Enter the information in the appropriate fields. **Follow the rules below**
  4. Close the record by clicking on File > Close Reference or by clicking on the X.
  5. In the window that opens, click Yes to save the reference information.

To modify a reference in the entry record:

  • select the Reference tab in the tab window


  • double-click on the reference


  • select References > Edit References.

To remove duplicates :

  • Click on the list All Reference(s) or on the desired group.
  • Menu References > Find Duplicates.
  • A window will open showing all the duplicate references.
  • Click Keep This Record for the references to be preserved.
  • References that are not preserved are sent to the Trash folder.

Adding a reference from a DOI

To add a reference from its unique identifier (Digital Object Identifier or DOI) :

  1. Menu References > New Reference.
  2. Enter the DOI in the corresponding field and click on Save.
  3. Select Find Reference Updates by right-clicking on your new reference.
  4. Select Update All Fields.

Always check that the data is entered correctly, making changes manually to the reference as necessary.

Input guidelines

WARNING: Check references obtained from the databases to make sure they respect the writing conventions below. Corrections are sometimes necessary. Be sure to ALWAYS enter each author name in the same way. Problems may occur in Word otherwise.

Auhtor (Author, Editor, Reporter, Programmer)
  • Enter all authors, one per line
  • Enter the authors' first names in full
    • Last name, <First name>, ex. Smith, Adam
    • OR <First name Last name> without comma, ex. Adam Smith
  • If the author is a collective, add a comma at the end
    • ex. HEC Montréal,
  • If the author is a collective whose name includes one or more commas, replace the first comma with 2 commas. Do not add a comma at the end
    • ex. Ministère de l'Éducation,, du Loisir et du Sport
  • Enter the year of publication only.
  • Use the four-digit format.
    • ex. 1971
  • Enter n.d. if no date.
  • No period at the end of the title, BUT enter any other punctuation if applicable.
  • Enter the full title with the subtitle.
    • The subtitle is separated from the title by a colon ( : ) preceded and followed by a space. The first word of the subtitle is written in lower case.
  • Enter the name of the journal in which the article was published
City, Place published
  • Enter the city of publication only.

  • Enter the first and last page numbers of the article.
    • ex. 341-349
  • Enter the total number of pages in a book.
  • Do not put page, p. or pp.
  • For a discontinuous pagination, use a comma.
    • ex. 341-349, 365-389
  • Enter the name of the publisher or organization that produces the document, without mentioning the word "publishing" unless it is part of the publisher's name.
  • Enter only the edition number.
    • ex. 3 for 3rd edition
  • Do not include an edition statement.
  • Enter the volume number only.
    • ex. 10
  • Enter the publication number only.
    • ex. 4
  • Enter the information as it should appear.
    • ex. August 30
  • Do not enter the year.
  • Enter the article's unique DOI.
    • ex. 10.1525/bio.2009.59.11.10
    • ex.
  • Keywords are not included in the bibliographic reference. They are used to search the library.
  • Put the keywords on separate lines or separate them with a semicolon.
Notes and Abstracts
  • The Notes and Abstracts fields can hold up to 15 pages of text.
  • Enter the Web site address and state the protocol.​​​​​​​
    • ex. https://, ftp://, etc.

Discarding duplicate references

As your library grows, it may acquire the same reference more than once.
To remove duplicate references:

  • Click on the list All References
  • Menu Library > Find Duplicates
  • A window opens displaying all duplicate references one by one.
  • Click on Keep This Record for the reference to be retained.
  • References that are not retained are automatically sent to the Trash.

EndNote identifies duplicates by comparing, among similar types of documents (book, periodical article, etc.), the information contained in the follwoing fields: author, title and year.